The Hydrography of the Voronezh region
Hydrography determine the Voronezh region 125 of the rivers, of which 53 – with a stable water regime throughout the year and 72 – with occasional non-permanent flow, which are dry at low water during the driest years. Currently the number of dry lands, or ephemeral streams was increased to 1218.
The territory of the Voronezh region lies entirely in the basin of the don river.
Length of the don within the Voronezh region is 530 km and is the widest in Verkhnemamonsky and Liski districts there are places where the don width of 150-200 meters!
Don is the main waterway of the region crosses the region in direction from North to South and South-East and provides navigation between the Azov and Black seas. With the Central Russian upland in don flow down its right tributaries-the river Veduga, Girl, Potudan, Quiet Pine, Black Kalitva, Bogucharka. The surface of the Oka-don lowland is crossed by the left tributaries of the don-Voronezh, Horotane, ikorets village, bityug, Oered, hopper with Black and Savaloy. Main rivers: the rivers in the basin of the don – this bityug and Khoper. Hopper – the most full-flowing tributary of the don, which flows through the lands of Novokhopyorsky, Povorinsky and Borisoglebsky districts. A year along the bed of the Khopyor river now flows approximately 3.3 cubic kilometers of water (in 1942, the water flow near the town of Novokhopersk town assessed value, twice).
Only in the area for more than 220 lakes, their total surface water area of 76 sq. km. Most of them are located in floodplains (only in the floodplain of the Khoper river in the Khopersky reserve, more than 200 lakes). Lakes in the region are mostly formed in the remnants of old river channels they are called oxbow lakes. Famous lake Rich village (Liskinsky district), and Hot Airfield (under construction). The largest – Ilmen lake (Povorinsky district) with an area of the surface of the water 2 to 2.5 sq. km.
As of the beginning of 2007, the marshes provided employment to nearly 40 thousand hectares of land in the region. Predominantly lowland swamps in the floodplains of the rivers don, Khoper and Voronezh, whispering Pine, Bityug, the Girls, the Potudan, ikorets village. These swamps are fed through groundwater. The most famous fens region: Bogdan (Liskinsky district), Swan (Bobrovsky area), the Mordva (Ostrogozhsk district), Cherkasy (Pavlovsky district). There are in the field – about six of them – and raised bogs fed by precipitation. Three Cranberry and Maklak in the Usman pine forest in Novousmansky district, Unnamed in Novokhopersk town district of the village of lake and swamp Deryuzhkina in Povorinsky area at the village Kamicak. They are all located outside of floodplains.
At the beginning of 2007 in the Voronezh region averaged 2351 pond and reservoir 206, the total volume of water in which was $ 626 million cum.m. and the total surface area of the water table was equal to 194 sq. km. largest artificial reservoirs of the region is Voronezh reservoir and the reservoir for cooling the Novovoronezh nuclear power station. Voronezh reservoir length of about 30 km, width 2 km and an average depth of about 3 meters has an area of 70 sq km and the water reserves of 204 million cubic meters.
The Voronezh region is located in the zone of insufficient moistening. Annual rainfall is relatively small, most of them evaporates. On one inhabitant of the Voronezh region accounts for about 1.5 thousand m³ of water supplies. For this indicator, the region is one of the poorest not only in the Central Chernozem economic region, but also in Russia. Besides, there is a tendency to a slow decrease in water resources due to human factor: firstly, cutting down forests protecting the water, which increases the amount of precipitation and less siltation of the sediment transport capacity; second, the disturbance of the water regime of the river during the construction of ponds and reservoirs, straightening of rivers and the construction of bridges, cleaning of channels and drainage of flood plains, the water withdrawal. Water reserves are reduced from global warming and loss with its water surface of artificial reservoirs. Over the past 50 years the density of the modern river network has decreased significantly; many small rivers and streams the area has become dry; completely disappeared, having lost its life.
Supply of surface water is about 14 cubic km of river, except the don, are shallow and are used for local water supply.
The shortest river in the area – just 11 miles – Chorak. Is a left tributary of Crows and flows into it at the Borisoglebsk district.
Within the field of surface water resources are distributed extremely unevenly. The richest by volume of water resources of the Semiluksky district. The lowest volumes of water resources — in Verkhnemamonsky, Povorinsky, Peter and Paul, Olhovatsky, monay, Vorobyevsky, Kantemirovsky municipal and Bogucharsky areas.