The river Neva connects lake Ladoga with the Gulf of Finland of the Baltic sea. Its basin (the area of the catchment) has an area of 281 000 km2. On the nature of the relief pool of the Neva river is divided into two areas approximately on the line Vyborg — Priozersk — Petrozavodsk — Ust-Vidlitsa. South of this line extends in General suboperation soft plain with hilly terrain to the North is the highly — rugged terrain. In General, the flat terrain of the basin. The species pool refers to the forest area. Soils are presented mainly sod-podzol sandy loam and loam, alternating with peat bogs. Forests occupy 55% of the area, swamps—13%, arable lands — 12%.
In the basin of the Neva river there are many lakes — about 50 000, and among them the largest lake in Europe — Ladoga and Onega, with an area of respectively 17 680 km 2 and km 2 9720. Other large lakes include the lake Saimaa in Finland (an area of 4400 km 2 ) and lake Ilmen (the area of 1000 km 2 ). All lakes Nevsky basin cover an area of 48,000 km 2. or 17% of its area. The volume of water in lakes pools huge — 1350 km 3. This water would be enough to power such rivers as the Dnieper, for 25 years, and like don, for 48 years.
In the basin of the Neva river there are also 60 000 rivers with a total length of 160,000 km, Four major rivers: Neva, Svir, Volkhov, Vuoksa. Medium and small rivers of the southern half of the basin is mostly typical of lowland rivers with sloping banks and broad floodplains floodplain. The Northern half of the basin have a different nature: flows into a steep wooded banks of the turbulent stream, we poured a deep servigny Plyos with a barely visible to the eye. These rivers are usually short and connect one lake with another.
Rivers, swamps and lakes of the basin form together its hydrographic network, in which device there is one distinguishing characteristic. Small lakes and swamps are located primarily in the upper reaches of rivers, several large lakes in the middle and lower reaches. Large lakes Onega, Saimaa, Ilmen — collect water from large areas of the basin and serve as collectors. Flowing from these lakes of the river — Svir, Vuoksa, Volkhov — carry even more water in the reservoir – lake Ladoga, along the way receiving only a small addition.
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(see diagram on the left of the “Pool of the Neva”)