Victoria is the largest lake in Africa
Many of us request, “Name the largest lake in Africa” with confidence will answer that is Victoria. Being the source of the Nile river, it occupies the second place in size among all the freshwater lakes. According to official information, it was opened by the Englishman D. Speke in 1858. This reservoir, the locals called the “big water”. However, the discoverer has named it Victoria – the name of the English Queen.
Among many scientists for a long time there were debates about what bodies of water is part of Victoria. According to some, this inland sea, however, others have argued that this large lake. In the end, the fact that the reservoir is filled with fresh water, forced to all converge on the second option.
The largest lake of the continent (Africa) is located in the heart of it. The total area of the reservoir is more than 68 thousand square kilometers. On the planet, exceeding even some seas (Azov and Aral). The lake is at the same time on the territory of three countries: Kenya, Uganda and Tanzania. For them it is a center of Commerce, navigation and fisheries.
The average depth of the lake is 80 meters. Due to the location at an altitude of about 1134 m above sea level, it belongs to the category mountain. The average annual temperature is around 22 degrees.
The largest lake in Africa has the shape of an irregular oval. Its dimensions in length and width are h kilometers respectively. Almost everywhere except the South-West region, the shores are low and marshy. Here there is a huge amount of different capes, bays, coves and even peninsulas.
On the territory of the lake there are also many Islands of various sizes. Among the biggest among them we can mention Mansome, Ukereoue, Coma and Ruwanda. The researchers of the reservoir together with the archaeologists found evidence that several million years ago its area was much larger.
For all time of existence of the lake on its coast formed a special climate in which high humidity is combined with the debilitating heat. In addition, the area is characterized as a prolonged tropical downpours and prolonged periods of drought. The largest lake of Africa is different in that a clear separation of the seasons on its territory there. The change of seasons is determined by this parameter, as the amount of precipitation. In particular, in winter falls the smallest number, and in the summer – on the contrary.
The water months are April to may. The lake level at this time can be increased to 600 millimeters. The temperature almost never drops below 25 degrees. Concepts such as the frost and snow, the locals generally are not known.
The largest lake in Africa raised by tectonic and volcanic processes highly enough, so here are all the wind that characterized the continent. From them unable to defend even the slopes of the mountains with the passes. Now the pond is one of the most dangerous on the planet due to hurricanes, tornadoes and storms. In connection with the hot climate evaporates large volume of water (approximately 93 cubic kilometers per year). Despite this, a shallow lake will never be. Scientists explain the unusual nature of the water cycle.
Flora and fauna
Flora and fauna in the area of the reservoir are similar to those throughout the continent. On the banks among the plants most often found banana trees, cane, reeds and papyrus. Many villagers grow coffee and bamboo. The largest lake of Africa is the habitat for crocodiles and hippos. In addition, the pond occurs more than one hundred species of fish. Among them are those that live exclusively here.
Separate words deserve birds that inhabit the coastal zone. Their flocks numbering millions of individuals, so the terrain is often painted in all colors of the rainbow. The most common are Venetian crane, flamingos and various species of herons.
The main problem of the lake
In the middle of the twentieth century, the local ecosystem were on the verge of complete destruction. The number of endangered species of plants and animals began to grow. A striking example are the rhinos that are being massacred by hunters for the purpose of obtaining valuable horns that are used in pharmacology. In addition, over the last few decades is several times reduced the number of leopards, elephants, giraffes, lions and hippos.
Major cities and ports on the coast
As noted above, the largest lake of Africa is located on the territory of the three countries. Each of them has on its coast trading ports and cities. In particular, Tanzania is Mwanza. It is through this port city of the state in significant volumes of trade. Nearby is one of the largest in Eastern Africa diamond deposits and gold, the export of which is the lion’s share of the national budget.
On the North coast the largest is the port of Entebbe (Uganda), acting as transfer points. In fact, all brought here by the lake production is shipped to the capital by road. As for Kenya, the largest city on lake Victoria is Kissima. Almost all goods from the industrial regions of the country are brought into it, and then deliver them to destination.