Most large lakes of the world (Part-3)
Closes the three largest lakes are Victoria lake in East Africa, in Tanzania, Kenya and Uganda. Located in a tectonic trough of the East African platform, at a height of 1134 m. This is the 2nd largest freshwater lake in the world after lake superior the largest lake in Africa
Discovered the lake and named it in honor of Queen Victoria of the British Explorer John Henning Speke in 1858.
The area of the lake Victoria 68 thousand sq. km, length 320 km, the maximum width of 275 km. Is part of the Victoria reservoir. A lot of Islands. Abundant river flows into the Kagera, it follows the Victoria Nile. The lake is navigable, the people engaged on it fishing.
North shore crosses the equator. Lake with a maximum depth of 80 m is a sufficiently deep lakes.
In contrast to the deep neighbors, Tanganyika and Nyasa, which lie within a system of gorges of Africa, lake Victoria fills a shallow depression between the Eastern and Western sides of the valley Great gorge. The lake receives a huge amount of water from rain, more than from all their tributaries.
Around the lake there live 30 million people. On the southern and Western shores of the lake lives the Haya people who knew how to grow coffee long before the arrival of Europeans. Main ports: Entebbe (Uganda), Mwanza, Bukoba (Tanzania), Kisumu (Kenya), near the Northern coast and Kampala, capital of Uganda.
On the second place confidently took lake superior is the largest, deepest and coldest of the Great lakes and, concurrently, the largest freshwater lake in the world.
In the North of the Upper lake is limited to the territory of the canadian province of Ontario, on the West by the American state of Minnesota, on the South by the States of Wisconsin and Michigan.
Basin of lake superior and Northern lake Huron were developed in the crystalline rocks of the southern Canadian shield, basin other lakes in the thickness of limestones, Dolomites and sandstones of the Paleozoic North American platform. The Upper basin lakes were formed by tectonic movements, pre-glacial fluvial and glacial erosion.
The origin of the water masses of the Upper lake is connected with the melting of the ice caps, the retreat of which was formed in this area a number of large lakes, repeatedly changed its shape.
In the Northern part of the Great lakes coastline is rugged, the Islands and shores (up to 400 m) rocky, steep, very scenic, especially the shores of lake superior and Northern lake Huron.
Fluctuations in the level of the Upper lake is artificially regulated for purposes of navigation, energy, etc. the Amplitude of seasonal fluctuation is 30-60 cm; the highest level was observed in summer, lowest in winter. Short-term level fluctuations, surges caused by strong winds and seiches reach 3-4 m tidal height 3-4 cm
The Caspian sea has headed the rating “The largest lake of the world” – despite the fact that it is called the sea, actually it is the biggest enclosed lake on the planet. It is located at the crossroads of Europe and Asia, and the sea is called only because of its size. The Caspian sea is a closed lake, and the water is salt, from 0.05 ‰ near the mouth of the Volga to from 11-13 ‰ in the Southeast.
The Caspian sea is shaped like the Latin letter S, the length of it from North to South — about 1200 km, from West to East — from 195 to 435 miles, averaging 310-320 miles.
The Caspian sea is divided according to the physical-geographical conditions into 3 parts — North Caspian, Middle Caspian and South Caspian. The conditional border between the Northern and Middle Caspian sea through the Chechen island (island) — tub-Karagan Cape, between the Middle and South Caspian — line Residential (the island) Gan Gulu (Cape). Area Northern, Middle and southern Caspian, respectively 25, 36, 39 per cent of the total area of the Caspian sea.
The coastline of the Caspian sea is estimated at about 6500 — 6700 km, with the Islands — up to 7000 kilometers. The shores of the Caspian sea to the greater part of its area is low-lying and smooth. In the Northern part of the coastline is indented with water channels and Islands of the Delta of the Volga and the Urals, the shores low and marshy, and the water surface in many places covered with thickets.
On the East coast is dominated by limestone coast, adjacent to the deserts and semi-deserts. The most winding shore on the Western shore of the Absheron Peninsula and on the East coast in the Bay area Kazakh and Kara-Bogaz-Gol.
Adjacent to the Caspian sea area is called Caspian.
Area and water volume of the Caspian sea varies greatly depending on water level fluctuations. When the water level 26,75 m area is about 371 000 km square kilometers, the volume of water is 78648 cubic kilometers, which is about 44 percent of world stocks of lake waters. The maximum depth of the Caspian sea — in the South Caspian basin, in 1025 meters from its surface. The value for the maximum depth of the Caspian sea is second only to lake Baikal (1620 m) and Tanganyika (1435 m). The average depth of the Caspian sea is 208 meters. At the same time, the Northern part of the Caspian sea is shallow, its maximum depth is 25 meters and the average depth is 4 meters.